The claim that health insurance improves health outcomes is hardly ground breaking. Studying whether insurance affects health status is like wondering whether three meals a day lead to a higher muscle mass than total starvation.
Forest ServiceWarren MeyerWildfires We can lament the tragic forest fires burning in California, but a discussion of contributing hazards and causes is urgent if we are to minimize future conflagrations.
The Left points the finger at climate change. Donald Trump, along with many forestry experts, point at forest mismanagement. Whether you believe in climate change or not, Trump is correct on this point.
However, he blames the state of California when in fact a good deal of the responsibility falls on the federal government. And as usual, Trump has inflamed passions with unnecessarily aggressive rhetoric and threats: Billions of dollars are given each year, with so many lives lost, all because of gross mismanagement of the forests.
Remedy now or no more Fed payments. The image at the top of this post is from the cover of a book by wildlife biologist George E. Gruellpublished in The author includes hundreds of historical photos of forests in the Sierra Nevada range from as early as He pairs them with photos of the same views in the late 20th century, such as the photo inset on the cover shown above.
The remarkable thing is that the old forests were quite thin by comparison. The following quote is from a review of the book on Amazon: Fire ecology is important and our fear of forest fires has led to an ever worsening situation in the Sierra Nevada.
There is ample reason to attribute the recent magnitude of wildfires to conditions influenced by forest management policy.
The contribution of a relatively modest change in average temperatures over the past several decades but primarily during the s is rather doubtful. And the evidence that warming-induced drought is the real problem is weakened considerably by the fact that the 20th century was wetter than normal in California.
Wildfires are a natural phenomenon and have occurred historically from various causes such as lightning strikes and even spontaneous combustion of dry biomass. They are also caused by human activity, both accidental and intentional.
In centuries past, Native Americans used so-called controlled or prescribed burns to preserve and restore grazing areas used by game. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, fire suppression became official U.
This trend, combined with a hot, dry spell in the s, led to sprawling wildfires. However, Warren Meyer says the data on burnt acreage during that era was exaggerated because the U. Forest Service insisted on counting acres burned by prescribed burns in states that did not follow its guidance against the practice.
The total acreage burned by wildfires in the U. So the state is experiencing fewer but larger fires. The prior success in containing fires was due in part to active logging and other good forest management policies, including prescribed burns. The reason wildfire control ever became a priority is the presence of people in forest lands, and human infrastructure as well.
Otherwise, the fires would burn as they always have.
Needless to say, homes or communities surrounded by overgrown forests are at great risk. Apparently Donald Trump is under the impression that state policies are largely responsible for overgrown and debris-choked forests.
In fact, both federal and state environmental regulations have played a major role in discouraging timber harvesting and prescribed burns. Much of the rest is owned privately or is tribal land.Wake Forest Law offers a variety of courses in many areas of legal theory and practice.
Below you will find a complete course listing. You can also find lists of courses that satisfy the Experiential Learning Requirement, Legal Analysis, Writing, and Research III Requirement, and Legal Analysis, Writing, and Research IV Requirement..
sort by course number. Uncompensated Care and Cost Shifting Global economic crisis has brought about the increase in cases of unco’mpensated care and cost shifting in the health care industry.
Essentially, the patients who are either unemployed or face financial constraints, most likely, do not have any form of health insurance. Medicaid Expansion Has Helped Drive Down Uncompensated Care Costs.
Hospitals saw significant reductions in uncompensated care costs as the ACA’s Medicaid expansion to low-income adults, marketplace subsidies, and major insurance market reforms took effect in Seeking Care at Public Hospitals New York City’s HHC is the largest municipal healthcare system in the nation, consisting of 11 hospitals, including the nation’s oldest public hospital, Bellevue Hospital Center.
May 15, · As a result, many healthcare providers, and most notably public safety net hospitals, provide services and expend resources treating patients for which they receive little or no direct reimbursement.
A variety of government programs exist to help reimburse healthcare providers for this otherwise uncompensated care. U.S. hospitals could face an additional $ billion in uncompensated-care costs by because fewer Americans will get coverage under the Medicaid expansion envisioned by the reform law.