Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. European expansion since The global expansion of western Europe between the s and the s differed in several important ways from the expansionism and colonialism of previous centuries. Along with the rise of the Industrial Revolution, which economic historians generally trace to the s, and the continuing spread of industrialization in the empire-building countries came a shift in the strategy of trade with the colonial world. Instead of being primarily buyers of colonial products and frequently under strain to offer sufficient salable goods to balance the exchangeas in the past, the industrializing nations increasingly became sellers in search of markets for the growing volume of their machine-produced goods.
During the five decades followingBritain, France, Spain and Portugal lost many of their possessions in the Americas.
Britain and the Thirteen Colonies[ edit ] Main articles: Thirteen ColoniesAmerican RevolutionAmerican Revolutionary Warand United States Declaration of Independence After the conclusion of the Seven Years' War inBritain had emerged as the world's dominant power, but found itself mired in debt and struggling to finance the Navy and Army necessary to maintain a global empire.
The British Parliament 's attempt to raise taxes from North American colonists raised fears among the Americans that their rights as "Englishmen", and particularly their rights of self-government, were in danger.
Froma series of disputes with Parliament over taxation led to the American Revolutionfirst to informal committees of correspondence among the colonies, then to coordinated protest and resistance, with an important event inthe Boston Massacre.
A standing army was formed by the United Coloniesand independence was declared by the Second Continental Congress on 4 July Formal acts of rebellion against British authority began in when the Patriot Suffolk Resolves effectively abolished the legal government of the Province of Massachusetts Bay and expelled all royal officials.
The tensions caused by this would lead to the outbreak of fighting between Patriot militia and British regulars at Lexington and Concord in April Britain recognised the sovereignty of the United States over the territory bounded by the British possessions to the North, Florida to the South, and the Mississippi River to the west.
Haiti became the second independent nation that was a former European colony in the Western Hemisphere after the United States.
Africans and people of African ancestry freed themselves from slavery and colonization by taking advantage of the conflict among whites over how to implement the reforms of the French Revolution in this slave society.
Although independence was declared init was not until that it was formally recognized by King Charles X of France. Spanish American wars of independence and Latin American wars of independence The gradual decline of Spain as an imperial power throughout the 17th century was hastened by the War of the Spanish Succession —14as a result of which it lost its European imperial possessions.
The death knell for the Spanish Empire in the Americas was Napoleon's invasion of the Iberian peninsula in With the installation of his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne, the main tie between the metropole and its colonies in the Americas, the Spanish monarchy, had been cut, leading the colonists to question their continued subordination to a declining and distant country.
With an eye on the events of the American Revolution forty years earlier, revolutionary leaders began bloody wars of independence against Spain, whose armies were ultimately unable to maintain control. BySpain had been ejected from the mainland of the Americas, leaving a collection of independent republics that stretched from Chile and Argentina in the south to Mexico in the north.
Spain's colonial possessions were reduced to CubaPuerto Ricothe Philippines and a number of small islands in the Pacific, all of which she was to lose to the United States in the Spanish—American War or sell to Germany shortly thereafter.
Portugal and Brazil[ edit ] Brazil was the only country in Latin America to gain its independence without bloodshed. For thirteen years, Portugal was ruled from Brazil the only instance of such a reversal of roles between colony and metropole until his return to Portugal in His son, Dom Pedrowas left in charge of Brazil and in he declared independence from Portugal and himself the Emperor of Brazil.
Unlike Spain's former colonies which had abandoned the monarchy in favour of republicanism, Brazil therefore retained its links with its monarchy, the House of Braganza. India onwards [ edit ] Main articles: Colonial India and Western imperialism in Asia Vasco da Gama 's maritime success to discover for Europeans a new sea route to India in paved the way for direct Indo-European commerce.
The next to arrive were the Dutchthe English —who set up a trading-post in the west-coast port of Surat in —and the French. The internal conflicts among Indian Kingdoms gave opportunities to the European traders to gradually establish political influence and appropriate lands.
Although these continental European powers were to control various regions of southern and eastern India during the ensuing century, they would eventually lose all their territories in India to the British, with the exception of the French outposts of Pondicherry and Chandernagorethe Dutch port in Travancoreand the Portuguese colonies of GoaDamanand Diu.
This was the first political foothold with territorial implications that the British had acquired in India.STUDY GUIDE Renaissance WORLD HISTORY: to Location of major states and empires in the Western Hemisphere • Expansion and colonialism • Victory over the Spanish Armada () STANDARD WHII.3b - Inquisition The impact of religious conflicts, including.
For your second written assignment, you are to write a short paper that focuses on at least two of the major causes for colonialism in the Western Hemisphere - e.g., empire-building, religion, economics, and culture. In your paper, compare and contrast the effects of . Some of the major causes of imperialism have previously been the need for resources to supply the industrial revolution with raw materials, maintaining a supply of cheap labor and the desire to sustain a steady market for exported manufactured goods.
To the benefit of a stronger nation intent on. The objective of European colonialism in Africa was a. preserving law and order.
From the very beginning, Europeans' attempts to establish colonies in the western hemisphere foundered on the lack of laborers to do the hard work of colony-building. The Spanish, for example, enslaved the Indians in regions under their control. The objective of European colonialism in Africa was a. preserving law and order. b. obtaining raw materials in exchange for purchasing finished products from the mother country. M2A1 Colonialism Some major causes for colonialism in the Western Hemisphere Economics There were several reasons to settle in North America. One, the people were granted with a chance of respectable living. Two, England lacked of money-making jobs and had very expensive lands. After settling in the New World, many people became .
b. obtaining raw materials in exchange for purchasing finished products from the mother country. Two things had been uppermost in the minds of Adams and Monroe. should challenge supposed European interventions in the Western Hemisphere by launching a drive to liberate Cuba and end the.
From the very beginning, Europeans' attempts to establish colonies in the western hemisphere foundered on the lack of laborers to do the hard work of colony-building.
The Spanish, for example, enslaved the Indians in regions under their control.