Stock learned off answers are not being rewarded — and rightfully so!
One answer is that they are modelling the behaviour of their own parents, having learned how to parent in the course of being parented. Yet another major determinant of their behaviour lies in their general attitudes as well as specific beliefs, thoughts, and feelings that are activated during parenting: Subject Child-rearing attitudes are cognitions that predispose an individual to act either positively or negatively toward a child.
Attitudes most frequently considered involve the degree of warmth and acceptance or coldness and rejection that exists in the parent-child relationship, as well as the extent to which parents are permissive or restrictive in the limits they set for their offspring.
Researchers have also studied more situation-specific thoughts or schemas — filters through which parents interpret and react to events, particularly ambiguous ones. These include cognitions such as beliefs about parenting abilities, expectations about what children are capable of or should be expected to do, and reasons why children have behaved in a particular way.
Problems The influence of attitudes on parenting behaviours has been a favourite topic of investigation, with research suggesting that linkages are generally of a modest nature. For example, parents might endorse or value being warm and responsive to children, but have difficulty expressing those feelings when their child is misbehaving.
As a result of this realization the study of parent cognitions has been widened to include more specific ways of thinking. Research Context The study of parent attitudes, belief systems, and thinking has taken place along with changing conceptions of child-rearing. These changes have emphasized the bidirectional nature of interactions, with children influencing parents as well as parents influencing children.
Key Research Questions Which parental attitudes result in the best child outcomes?
Recent Research Results A large body of research on attitudes indicates that parental warmth together with reasonable levels of control combine to produce positive child outcomes.
Although not strong, as noted above, the results are consistent. Researchers have noted that what is seen to be a reasonable level of control varies as a function of sociocultural context.
|Critical Evaluation||Portions totaling not more than words my be freely used with appropriate citation. To check printed book appearance see pdf version of Chapter|
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|Short Essay on Attitude||Birching, Germany17th century Depiction of a flogging at Oregon State Penitentiary, Corporal punishment of children has traditionally been used in the Western world by adults in authority roles. He that spareth the rod, hateth his son; but he that loveth him, chasteneth him betimes.|
|The origins of the birth order effect||I stopped caring about my community, my neighbors, and those I serve. I stopped caring today because a once noble profession has become despised, hated, distrusted, and mostly unwanted.|
As an example, parents look for reasons why both they and their children act the way the do. These attributions can make parenting more efficient when they are accurate.
These negative feelings distract parents from the task of parenting, and make it more difficult for them to react appropriately and effectively to the challenges of socialization.
For example, Bugental and colleagues have studied mothers who believe their children have more power than they do in situations where events are not going well. They send confusing messages to their children, with the result that children stop paying attention to them as well as showing a decrease in cognitive ability.
Similarly, mothers of infants who are low in self-efficacy, that is, do not believe they can parent effectively, give up on parenting when the task is challenging and become depressed.
They are cold and disengaged in interactions with their babies. Mothers report higher endorsement of progressive parenting attitudes, encouraging their children to think and verbalize their own ideas and opinions, whereas fathers endorse a more authoritarian approach.
Conclusions The study of parent cognitions, beliefs, thoughts, and feelings can expand our knowledge of child development. Child-rearing cognitions influence parents to act either positively or negatively towards their children. These beliefs have been considered good predictors of parenting behaviour because they indicate the emotional climate in which children and parents operate and the health of the relationship.
When the thoughts are benign, they direct positive actions.Attitude does influence ones behavior. Studies have shown that people behave according to their attitude under certain conditions.
Condition like when expecting a favorable outcome, due to personal experience are some of the examples. Attitudes could be changed. Attitudes do impact our behavior, but they are not imposed on stone within us. Corporal punishment or physical punishment is a punishment intended to cause physical pain on a person.
It is most often practised on minors, especially in home and school arteensevilla.com methods include spanking or arteensevilla.com has also historically been used on adults, particularly on prisoners and enslaved people.
Other common methods include flagellation and caning. The book An Essay on the Principle of Population was first published anonymously in , but the author was soon identified as Thomas Robert arteensevilla.com book predicted a grim future, as population would increase geometrically, doubling every 25 years, but food production would only grow arithmetically, which would result in famine and starvation, unless births were controlled.
In no more than 3, words you are required to complete an essay on ethical issues in the practice of counseling, by addressing the following question: What are the two ethical issues which are likely to be the most concerning for you personally in your counseling work?
. Self- monitoring – is the degree to which someone is able to adjust behavior in response to external factors. ATTITUDES Attitudes – is a predisposition to act in a certain way. Cognitive dissonance – is discomfort felt when attitude and behavior are inconsistent.
The problem with Attitude 2 is that once you dismiss what the patient has told you directly about his mental state, you have to deduce what his mental state actually is based on fairly slim evidence, when there are multiple choices, some of which are correct, and others wrong.