Paradigms in nursing

Nursing theory is a framework designed to organize knowledge and explain phenomena in nursing, at a more concrete and specific level. Each discipline has a unique focus for knowledge development that directs its inquiry and distinguishes it from other fields of study.

Paradigms in nursing

What is the Nursing Metaparadigm? - Nursing Education Expert

The nursing researchers and students should be familiar about these ideas because their understanding is important for theory development and knowledge advancement in nursing DiBartolo, ; Northrup et al.

These different nursing philosophical ideas are the origin of various paradigms. A paradigm is defined as a worldview which serves as a philosophical underpinning for explaining any phenomena of interest to a discipline Parse, It determines the goals and boundaries of a discipline and organizes its knowledge.

The nursing paradigm represents global ideas about individuals, groups, situations and phenomena of interest to this discipline Fawcett, It explains the nature of human beings, their relationship with the environment, and the human-universal-health processes Fawcett, ; Parse, The nursing philosophers, based on their philosophies, offered various paradigms that contribute to the development of nursing knowledge.

A Review of the Nursing Paradigm

Each of these paradigms have their own importance and focuses on different methods of inquiries and practice in the nursing discipline Parse, ; Bahramnezhad et al. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the characteristics of various paradigms in nursing and exemplify how nursing theories and models fit within a certain nursing paradigmatic classification.

Paradigms in Nursing Among the nursing philosophers, Parse classified the two major nursing perspectives as the totality and the simultaneity paradigms. The totality paradigm views the human-universe relationship as cause-effect in nature.

However, the simultaneity paradigm is embedded in a view of the human-universe relationship as a mutual process Parse, Each of these paradigms has influenced the perspectives of several nursing theorists and there are many theories that fall into these categories.

The theories within the totality paradigm consider body, mind, and spirit as separate entities. They emphasize the practice modalities focusing on the physiological, psychological, spiritual, and social well-being of people.

The human beings are considered to be in a linear interaction with their environment. On the other hand, the theories within the simultaneity paradigm adheres to descriptions of human beings as whole entities recognized through patterns. The human beings are considered to be in continuous and simultaneous interaction with their environment Parse, Newman also proposed three prevailing paradigms; the particulate deterministic, the interactive integrative, and the unitary transformative.

The particulate deterministic paradigm views nursing phenomena as separable, reducible, and measurable entities. These entities have an ordered connectedness to each other which is linear and casual in nature. The change occurs as a consequence of the antecedent conditions.

The identification of these antecedent conditions predict the change in the phenomena of concern. This paradigm mostly focus on the objective nursing phenomena.

Paradigms in nursing

On the other hand, the interactive integrative paradigm views reality as multifaceted and contextual. It recognizes both objective and subjective nursing phenomena with their reciprocal relationship.

Change is assumed to be an effect of multiple antecedent factors and their probabilistic associations. Lastly, the unitary transformative paradigm present reality in a different way than others. It views human beings as uniform beings and evolving as a self-directing field.

Their self-directing field is recognized through certain patterns that they develop through interaction with a larger whole. Fawcett analyzed the characteristic worldviews of Reese and OvertonHallNewmanand Parse On the basis of the similarities and differences of these worldviews, Fawcett generated a set of three paradigms: The reaction worldview combines the features of the totality and the particulate deterministic paradigm.

The reciprocal interaction view combines the characters of the totality, simultaneity and interactive integrative worldview.Nursing theory is the term given to the body of knowledge that is used to support nursing practice.

Nursing theory is a framework designed to organize knowledge and explain phenomena in nursing, at a more concrete and specific level. According to Nursing Theories, a nursing paradigm is a pattern that shows the relationship between a person, the environment in which she lives and her health.

A nursing paradigm is a concept that has developed over time from the beliefs and practices of professionals in the healthcare sector. Of the many controversies that have accompanied the growth of nursing as a discipline, few have been debated as long and as vigorously as the question of which paradigm should guide nursing science.

In conclusion, nursing is a multi-paradigmatic discipline. The nursing paradigms play an essential role for understanding multifaceted human beings and related nursing phenomena.

The conceptual models and theories in nursing represent different paradigms and aspects of nursing. FOUR NURSING PARADIGMS PERSON Human being is a total person as a client system and the person is a layered multidimensional being.5/5(2).

A metaparadigm is a set of theories or ideas that provide structure for how a discipline should function. For a nursing discipline, these theories consist of four basic concepts that address the patient as a whole, the patient’s health and well-being, the patient’s environment and the nursing responsibilities.

Introduction to nursing theories