Brief History of Resistance and Antibiotics Antibiotic resistance happens when germs like bacteria and fungi develop the ability to defeat the drugs designed to kill them.
Steak of the Art: When you factor in the fertilizer needed to grow animal feed and the sheer volume of methane expelled by cows mostly, though not entirely, from their mouthsa carnivore driving a Prius can contribute more to global warming than a vegan in a Hummer. In this vision of the future, our steaks are grown in vats rather than in cows, with layers of cow cells nurtured on complex machinery to create a cruelty-free, sustainable meat alternative.
Cell culture is one of the most expensive and resource-intensive techniques in modern biology. Keeping the cells warm, healthy, well-fed, and free of contamination takes incredible labor and energy, even when scaled to the 10,liter vats that biotech companies use.
In addition, even in those sophisticated vats, the three-dimensional techniques that would be required to grow actual steaks with a mix of muscle and fat have not been invented yet, though not for lack of trying. This technology would primarily benefit our ability to make artificial organ replacements.
Add on top of that the fact that these three-dimensional wads of meat would have to be exercised regularly with stretching machinery, essentially elaborate meat gyms, and you can begin to understand the incredible challenge of scaling in vitro meat.
Cell culture is hideously expensive, not to mention technically difficult. Even beyond this mechanical engineering issue, when we consider the other raw materials, the nutrients that will feed and sustain these stem cells as they grow into our dinner, the large-scale sustainability of in vitro meat can be called into question.
In fact, of all the fantastic claims of lab-grown meat, the most far-fetched given current technology is that in vitro meat will be cruelty-free. Of course, many tissue engineers are trying to come up with cheaper and cruelty-free alternatives to fetal calf serum.
Algae is currently a much-trumpeted replacement: Algae are remarkable organisms, and they are especially important because their photosynthetic efficiency, the rate at which they convert sunlight into sugars, is significantly higher than plants like corn.
This efficiency allows for the production of the same amount of stuff in a much smaller area, with fewer inputs. Scaling, it turned out, killed these plans the last time we tried them.
Scaling algae production in open ponds proved an enormous challenge, with the gains in efficiency fading as the controlled environment of the lab was traded for ponds where cells crowded and shaded each other while having to fight off infections and predators.
At the same time as algae failed to deliver, the Green Revolution significantly improved yields of conventional crops, and algae was slowly transformed into a specialty product rather than the base of the food pyramid. The real issue is the ever-growing demand for meat, and our unwillingness to eat less of it, regardless of the environmental cost.
Perhaps someday soon we will be able to outgrow our taste for flesh, not by producing it artificially or by genetically engineering people to be disgusted by meat another far-out fix but by changing the price of meat to reflect its true environmental cost.
Meat image via Shutterstockcell culture image via Shutterstock.AP Bio pGLO Transformation Formal Lab Report Essay Sample. Abstract: The topic of this research involved the occurrence of genetic transformation in bacteria (E. Coli). Introduction.
In this lab, the goal was to transform the bacteria e-coli to glow in the dark (or under a black light). Four plates were set up with agar in them for the bacteria to feed on and grow. It's been 80 years to the day since Orson Welles' infamous radio drama "The War of the Worlds" echoed far and wide over the airwaves.
So we want to bring you back to our very first live hour, where we take a deep dive into what was one of the most controversial moments in broadcasting history. These organisms are divided into two main groups namely gram positive and gram negative bacteria (this essay places its emphasis on gram negative bacteria).
They can be differentiated into these groups according to their cell wall structure and their ability to retain two stains; safranin in the case of gram negatives and crystal violet in the.
By examining the results of the incubation of bacteria, the zone of inhibition, which is the area without bacterial growth that surrounds the antimicrobial disk, can determine how effective the antibiotics were against the bacteria.
Immortality is eternal life, being exempt from death, unending existence. Some modern species may possess biological immortality.. Certain scientists, futurists, and philosophers have theorized about the immortality of the human body, with some suggesting that human immortality may be achievable in the first few decades of the 21st arteensevilla.com advocates believe that life extension is a more.