Anthrax is zoonotic disease. It is primarily an infectious disease of domestic animals and is transmitted to man when he comes in contact with them. Bacillus anthracis is the causal agent of anthrax.
Wild animals have their own epidemics, which are called epizootics, as well as circulating diseases like colds or flus in humans.
Overviews of epizootic prevalence in animals are rare in the literature, but epizootics are common in nature. Some epizootics are traced to spillover events. Much of the existing research on spillover in wild animals is on topics of human health or veterinary interest, e. Researchers also commonly study animal disease as it affects conservation of endangered populations.
What factors affect parasite load and disease? Researchers look at two metrics to study the magnitude of parasitic burden on a species or an individual: Both of these are correlated, though not directly — more diverse ecosystems frequently, although not always, have more abundance and biomass Cardinale et al.
Richness and abundance across species and populations When looking at whole species or populations of a species, researchers usually examine richness. Parasitic richness among different species depends on a variety of factors.
Non-autochthonous1Not originating in the place where found; non-native or introduced populations have fewer parasites than autochthonous2Originating in the place where found; native or local. Animals that eat a larger volume of food, e. From insects to human beings, social animals have more parasites and infectious diseases than solitary animals, because potential hosts are more densely concentrated.
For example, sparring dear transmit papovavirus through open wounds, which leads to skin tumors Sorensen et al. Richness and abundance in individual animals Parasite load varies drastically between individuals. Old and juvenile animals are more likely to have and die from parasites.
Older animals have also generally accumulated more non-lethal parasites over their lives, which may still exact a fitness cost Lester, Some individuals have unusually high levels of parasites.
The effect is well-known in both human and animal outbreaks. The reason this happens in some individuals but not others is somewhat unclear, but may have to do with unusual illness characteristics that lead to higher rates of spread — for instance, humans with Staphylococcus aureus colonizing the respiratory system are more likely to transmit it to others than those where it colonizes the skin, its usual location Stein, One of these is the complicated nature of parasitism.
Parasitism is a form of symbiosis, an umbrella category that also includes mutualism both organisms benefit from an association and commensalism where one organism benefits and another is unaffected. These categories are not clearly delineated in nature. Sometimes, most of the harm of a pathogen comes from the immune response it triggers, rather than direct bodily harm.
Some animals have behavioral strategies to deal with parasites, like preening in birds or social grooming in mammals.Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, – July 2, ) was an American journalist, novelist, and short-story writer.
His economical and understated style—which he termed the iceberg theory—had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction, while his adventurous lifestyle and his public image brought him admiration from later arteensevilla.comway produced most of his work between the mid.
More Essay Examples on Disease Rubric. Therefore, this disease occurs mostly in wild or domestic animals as they are eating grass. Humans can also get infected with anthrax in case of exposure to infected animals, breathing . Anthrax is a serious infectious disease caused by gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria known as Bacillus anthracis.
Although it is rare, people can get sick with anthrax if they come in contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products. Anthrax Essay - 1.
The anthrax bacillus is considered the first "germ" proved to cause human disease. In , Anthrax was deliberately spread through the postal system by sending letters with powder containing anthrax. This caused 22 cases of anthrax infection.
This prevention measure protects against the anthrax disease. When an. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays.
Published: Mon, 5 Dec In , letters containing the virulent Ames strain of anthrax spores were mailed to several news media offices killing five people and infecting 17 others.
Anthrax is one of the most dangerous acute infectious diseases, which can occur both in human and animal organisms - Anthrax Essay introduction. It is caused by the bacterium called Bacillus anthracis, a one-cell micro-organism which can form dormant (asleep) spores.