There are very few changes within the OCR course, but everything most certainly becomes more challenging. The tiered questions now triple themselves and are worth 10 marks in AS. The multiple choice in the exam is also non-existent.
Plyometrics Speed and strength are integral components of fitness found in varying degrees in virtually all athletic movements.
Simply put the combination of speed and strength is power. For many years, coaches and athletes have sought to improve power in order to enhance performance.
Throughout this century and no doubt long before, jumping, bounding and hopping exercises have been used in various ways to enhance athletic performance. In recent years, this distinct method of training for power or explosiveness has been termed plyometrics. Plyometrics is based on the understanding that a concentric muscular contraction is much stronger if it immediately follows an eccentric contraction of the same muscle.
Plyometric Phases A plyometric exercise comprises of three phases: Eccentric phase, or landing phase, involves the pre-loading energy is stored of the agonist muscle group Amortization phase, or transition phase, is the time between the concentric and eccentric phases.
This time needs to be as short as possible otherwise the energy stored during the eccentric phase dissipates, reducing the plyometric effect Concentric phase, or take-off phase, uses the stored energy to increase the force of the movement Muscle Mechanism The maximum force that a muscle can develop is attained during a rapid eccentric contraction.
However, it should be realised that muscles seldom perform one type of contraction in isolation during athletic movements. When a concentric contraction occurs muscle shortens immediately following an eccentric contraction muscle lengthens then the force generated can be dramatically increased.
If a muscle is stretched, much of the energy required to stretch it is lost as heat, but some of this energy can be stored by the elastic components of the muscle. This stored energy is available to the muscle only during a subsequent contraction.
It is important to realise that this energy boost is lost if the eccentric contraction is not followed immediately by a concentric contraction. To express this greater force the muscle must contract within the shortest time possible.
This whole process is frequently called the stretch-shortening cycle and is the underlying mechanism of plyometric training. Choose the method to fit the sport The golden rule of any conditioning program is specificity.
This means that the movement you perform in training should match, as closely as possible, the movements encountered during competition. If you are a rugby player, practising for the line out or a volleyball player interested in increasing vertical jump height, then drop jumping or box jumping may be the right exercise.
However if you are a javelin thrower aiming for a more explosive launch, then upper body plyometrics is far more appropriate. The Klatt Tests Before starting a programme of plyometrics it is worth conducting the Klatt tests with the athlete. The tests include the basic plyometric movements, so if they cannot be achieved it can be assumed the athlete is not ready for a programme of plyometrics.
Plyometric Exercises The following are examples of the lower body and upper body plyometric exercises.
Lower Body Drop Jumping This exercise involves the athlete dropping not jumping to the ground from a raised platform or box, and then immediately jumping up.
The drop down gives the pre-stretch to the leg muscles eccentric phase and the vigorous drive upwards the secondary concentric contraction phase.
The exercise will be more effective the shorter the time the feet are in contact with the ground. The loading in this exercise is governed by the height of the drop that should be in the region of 30 to cm Bompa et. Drop jumping is a relatively high impact form of plyometric training and would normally be introduced after the athlete had become accustomed to lower impact alternatives, such as two-footed jumping on the spot.
The two key factors in drop jumping are a minimal contact time with the ground and the height achieved in the drive upwards.PSAL,Sport Profile. In the Fall PSAL Transfer League was replaced with MPL, Multiple Pathways League.
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